Rencontre avec Jacqueline Pigeot à l’INALCO à l’occasion de la parution de son dernier ouvrage « L’Âge d’or de la prose féminine au Japon (Xe-XIe siècle) » (Les Belles Lettres, 2017).
Le Roman du Genji, un chef-d’œuvre incontesté de la littérature universelle, est dû à une femme, Murasaki Shikibu, qui vécut à la cour du Japon aux alentours de l’an mil. Sa contemporaine Sei Shônagon a laissé un ouvrage unique en son genre par sa liberté de ton et son traitement virtuose de l’art de la liste : les Notes de Chevet. Une autre femme de la noblesse, connue comme « La mère de Fujiwara no Michitsuna », avait quelques années auparavant rédigé les Mémoires d’une Éphémère, sans doute la première autobiographie de la littérature mondiale.
Dans ce livre, Jacqueline Pigeot rappelle les conditions qui ont permis l’épanouissement de la prose féminine à cette époque, et analyse plusieurs des procédés d’écriture (monologue intérieur, modalités du dialogue, citations cryptées) pour la première fois mis en œuvre dans les Mémoires d’une Éphémère et dans Le Roman du Genji.
Vendredi 12 mai de 16h à 18 h
INALCO (salle 510), 65, rue des Grands Moulins, 75013 Paris
Entrée libre à tous dans la limite des places disponibles
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org
Conférence de Yuliya Osadcha Ferreira (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Kyiv) dans le cadre du séminaire collectif du Centre Japon le 2 février 2017.
The establishment of a modern literary discourse in Meiji Japan required the creation of new and fundamentally different prose from the entertaining and didactic gesaku (戯作) of the Edo period or classical medieval literature of the Heian period. For creating this new kind of prose, Japanese literati needed to put in place new tools to recast and develop the modern Japanese literature.
First, they had to create a clear new literary language through which writers would be able to convey to their ideas to reader of all social strata regardless of their level of education. Second, they were led to « re-invent » the fiction into a specific genre of shōsetsu (小説), along with a canon and content. Third, they also had to work on changing traditional view of fiction-writing from the frivolous pursuit belonging to the entertainment world into a professional activity of social import, with its own high-minded milieu of writers and literary critics.
This reconfiguration of literary production took place at a time of deep social upheaval in Japan and with eyes fixed on modern European poetics, which – in its great variety – was difficult for Japanese authors to grapple with. For the success in the creation of new and original texts, Japanese writers were indebted to their experience of European authors’ translations.
This talk will revisit the social history of Meiji literature, from the 1868 Restoration to the mid 80s. It will show how the formation of a new literary and critical discourse in Japan have been the fruit of not only processes internal to the literary world but was in many ways shaped by extra-literary phenomena such projects undertaken under the banner of « civilization and enlightenment » (文明開化), the movement for the unification of the spoken and written language (言文一致運動), and educational reforms, the development of journalism and the emergence of the professional literary milieu (文壇).
Jeudi 2 février 2017 de 11h00 à 13h00
EHESS, Salle 7, 105 boulevard Raspail 75006 Paris
Robert J. TUCK (Université du Montana) donnera une conférence dans le cadre du séminaire du Centre Japon le 19 janvier 2017.
Discussions of Japanese literary modernity generally center on prose fiction rather than poetic genres, despite the important role poetry played in premodern Japanese literary culture. This paper, however, foregrounds two traditional poetic genres, kanshi (Sinitic poetry) and waka (modern tanka), and their role in Meiji-era (1867-1912) discourses of national literature (kokubungaku 国文学). As Meiji critics grappled with the creation and kokushi 国詩),” they also attempted in tandem to delineate the boundaries of national-poetic community. Exploring the poetry and critical writings of Meiji poets Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規 (1867-1902), Yosano Tekkan 与謝野鉄幹 (1873-1935), and kanshi poet Kokubu Seigai 国分青厓 (1857-1944), I highlight the fault lines and unstable boundaries of this national-poetic community, arguing that Japanese poetic modernity resisted the idea of nation and national-poetic community as synonymous. Tekkan, Seigai et al’s definitions of poetic community through exclusion and hierarchy – that is, who should not be a Japanese poet – complicate previous narratives of Meiji national literature that stress literary works as a focal point for visions of a cohesive national community.
In both kanshi and waka, political factionalism and notions of hierarchical masculinity were major fault lines in the national-poetic project. The 1870s popularity of quasi-erotic kanshi, the so-called “fragrant-style (Ch. xianglian ti, J. kōrentai香奩体),” elicited attacks on practitioners as immoral, feminized, and corrosive to ‘proper,’ vigorous masculinity. With “fragrant-style” poems popular within the Meiji government, poetic masculinity became entangled with political factionalism, anti-government poets (notably Seigai) conflating poetics and politics to paint fragrant-style poets as weak and unworthy to represent the nation. Similar anxieties over poetic effeminacy influenced Meiji discussions on waka; despite government promotion of waka as a national poetry, as in the imperially-convened New Year’s Poetry Party (utakai hajime 歌会始) and official Bureau of Poetry (Outadokoro 御歌所), much Meiji discourse on waka reflected concerns that the genre’s themes of wistful love made it insufficiently ‘manly.’ As Tekkan condemned the Outadokoro as effeminate and waka as “women’s literature,” here too fault lines of gender and political factionalism disrupted the seemingly natural adoption of waka as a national poetry.
Jeudi 19 janvier 2017 de 11h00 à 13h00
EHESS, Salle 7, 105 boulevard Raspail 75006 Paris